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    Canna Leaf, Rhizome, and Fruit Morphology

    Canna are herbaceous perennials of tropical origin. They have a rhizomatous rootstock and they spread out slowly outside from where they are planted. Each private stem consists of a main herbaceous stalk with 10 to 12 leaves arranged alternately or spirally on it. Each plant might be 2' to 3' wide. In nature, the plants tend to be rather high (7' to 16') but lots of shorter choices have actually been made for gardens. As soon as the plant has 6 to 9 leaves, it forms an inflorescence at the pointer in http://40010.net/userinfo.php?uid=61933

    Canna Rhizome

    The root is a thickened underground horizontal stem that sits just below the soil surface. As it lengthens, it produces shoots that grow upward to produce leaves and flowers and fibrous roots at each node. The thickness of the Canna rhizome varies by types. The cultivars grown for food have really thick rhizomes, however some types (specifically the water-loving species) have thin or wiry rhizomes. When a person purchases a bare-root Canna rhizome they need to anticipate to get an area that has at least 3 popular stalk buds (eyes) on it. In some types, the rhizome matures to 24" (60cm) long and has numerous branches. Eventually the older parts of the root die off naturally.

    Canna Leaves

    Canna leaves are large, banana-like, tropical-looking and bold. The majority of cultivars have abundant emerald-green leaves. However, there are also purple/red leaves and variegated leaves. The purple or red leaf color is normally rather dark and may cover the whole leaf, just the outdoors margin, or occasionally simply the midrib. Variegation in Cannas has two forms. It may consist of white or red splotches/sectors on green leaves (e.g., Canna 'Stuttgart'). Or, it might include narrow stripes of color in-between the small veins (e.g., Canna 'Phasion' or Canna 'Bengal Tiger').

    The leaves develop alternately (1/2 phyllotaxy) or spirally (1/3 phyllotaxy) from the stem. When they first emerge they are rolled up and unfurl throughout a day or more (unfurling occurs only at night). The leaves are broad and flat ... approximately 6" broad and 1.5' to 2' long. In some cases the leaf edge (margin) might be wavy. The leaves are typically waxy (glaucous) and might have a dull or glossy surface depending upon the type of wax. Cannas are monocots, so the leaves have a prominent midrib that is pinnately veined with numerous medium or fine side veins. The Water Canna cultivar group usually has extremely narrow leaves compared with many others. The leaves have actually rounded sides that taper to a point at the suggestion (intense or brief acuminate). The leaf blade tapers gradually into a sheath that combines with the stem and hence there is no petiole.

    Canna Fruit and Seed

    The Canna fruit forms from a warty ovary that subtends the flower parts. The fruit swells after ferilization and looks somewhat like a small horse-chestnut. When mature, it turns brown and splits open (dehisces) along 3 seams revealing pea-sized brown or black seeds that are exceptionally tough. The embryos are mature at dehiscence but the seed will not germinate since the seed coat is incredibly thick (prevents imbibition) and contains germination preventing chemicals. This thick seed coat enables Canna seed to make it through for a very long time. In 1969, Canna indica seed was discovered in a 550 years of age historical dig in Argentina and was effectively germinated. The factor that the seed coat may be so thick is that fire plays a part in Canna seed germination in its native habitiat. In the wild, Canna seed germinates finest in locations burned by fire. Fire not only weakens the seed coat, however damages any competitors for the emerging Canna seedling.




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