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    Canna Leaf, Root, and Fruit Morphology

    Canna are herbaceous perennials of tropical origin. They have a rhizomatous rootstock and they spread gradually external from where they are planted. Each specific stem includes a central herbaceous stalk with 10 to 12 leaves arranged alternately or spirally on it. Each plant might be 2' to 3' broad. In nature, the plants tend to be quite high (7' to 16') but lots of shorter selections have actually been produced gardens. When the plant has 6 to 9 leaves, it forms an inflorescence at the idea in http://www.asp-japan.co.jp/userinfo.php?uid=287128

    Canna Root

    The rhizome is a thickened underground horizontal stem that sits simply below the soil surface area. As it extends, it produces shoots that grow upward to produce leaves and flowers and fibrous roots at each node. The thickness of the Canna root varies by types. The cultivars grown for food have very thick roots, however some types (especially the water-loving species) have thin or wiry rhizomes. When a person purchases a bare-root Canna root they ought to expect to receive an area that has at least 3 popular stalk buds (eyes) on it. In some species, the root matures to 24" (60cm) long and has lots of branches. Ultimately the older parts of the root die off naturally.

    Canna Leaves

    Canna leaves are big, banana-like, tropical-looking and bold. Many cultivars have abundant emerald-green leaves. Nevertheless, there are likewise purple/red leaves and variegated leaves. The purple or red leaf color is typically rather dark and may cover the whole leaf, simply the outside margin, or sometimes just the midrib. Variegation in Cannas has two types. It may consist of white or red splotches/sectors on green leaves (e.g., Canna 'Stuttgart'). Or, it might consist of narrow stripes of color between the minor veins (e.g., Canna 'Phasion' or Canna 'Bengal Tiger').

    The leaves arise alternately (1/2 phyllotaxy) or spirally (1/3 phyllotaxy) from the stem. When they first emerge they are rolled up and unfurl during a day or 2 (unfurling takes place only during the night). The leaves are broad and flat ... approximately 6" wide and 1.5' to 2' long. Often the leaf edge (margin) might be wavy. The leaves are normally waxy (glaucous) and may have a dull or glossy finish depending on the type of wax. Cannas are monocots, so the leaves have a popular midrib that is pinnately veined with lots of medium or fine side veins. The Water Canna cultivar group usually has very narrow leaves compared with the majority of others. The leaves have actually rounded sides that taper to a point at the suggestion (severe or short acuminate). The leaf blade tapers slowly into a sheath that merges with the stem and hence there is no petiole.

    Canna Fruit and Seed

    The Canna fruit types from a warty ovary that subtends the floral parts. The fruit swells after ferilization and looks somewhat like a small horse-chestnut. When mature, it turns brown and splits open (dehisces) along 3 joints exposing pea-sized brown or black seeds that are exceedingly tough. The embryos are fully grown at dehiscence however the seed will not sprout since the seed coat is extremely thick (prevents imbibition) and includes germination hindering chemicals. This thick seed coat allows Canna seed to make it through for a long time. In 1969, Canna indica seed was discovered in a 550 year old archaeological dig in Argentina and was successfully germinated. The factor that the seed coat may be so thick is that fire plays a part in Canna seed germination in its native habitiat. In the wild, Canna seed germinates finest in places burned by fire. Fire not only compromises the seed coat, but damages any competition for the emerging Canna seedling.

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